Database of Prisoner Education and Recidivism Resources

Augusta Nissly | May 9, 2019



Basic Information About Correctional Facilities

Federal Bureau of Prisons: Organization, Mission, and Functions

Structure and Function of Corrections
Infographic that provides a very basic overview

Divisions of the Federal Bureau of Prisons
Clickable diagram with departments and geographic divisions

Security Levels in Federal Prisons
Descriptions of different types of facilities and their security levels

What is the Difference Between Jail and Prison?
The difference between these institutions and a brief comparison of the characteristics of each

Basic Do’s and Don’ts of Prison Visits

General visiting information
Four steps for a successful prison visit

“What I Learned Volunteering in Prison for 6 Months”
Oregon State Penitentiary volunteer describes her experience, dispels common misconceptions, and provides insight into some of the fundamental aspects of prison life

S. Law Enforcement Abbreviations and Acronyms
Extensive list of common terms used by police and other law enforcement personnel

How Prisons Work
A multi-part article with information about the main aspects of prisons by Stuff You Should Know. They also have one about How Bail Works.

Facts on Juvenile Detention Reform
Snapshot of the juvenile justice system



Prison Life and Inmate Challenges

Prison Culture
Slide show from the perspective of a former Michigan prison worker that addresses important aspects of prison life such as power structure, cultural differences and sensitivity of staff, language, and stigmas

Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates
Report by the Department of Justice with information about the prevalence of mental health problems in different prison and jail populations

Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Women Offenders
Paper with information to help understand mental problems facing females in the prison system and the types of trauma most likely to cause these issues, as well as treatment recommendations

Addressing Mental Illness and Medical Conditions in County Jails
Statistics and information about the challenge of meeting the needs of mentally ill inmates at the county level

Cultural Education Goes Both Ways in U.S. Prisons
Article by the American Psychological Association about the language and cultural barrier between inmates and corrections officers, as well as the lack of awareness of the legal and criminal justice systems by some inmates

Ear Hustle
A podcast produced by inmates in the San Quentin State Prison that gives the listener a better understanding of life inside by those who are living it

Inmate Subcultures and Informal Organizations
Informative website about hierarchies, slang, and common practices among prisoners, as well as some history behind them

Cultural Competence
Article about the ability to interact with people of different cultures and socioeconomic backgrounds, and the necessary elements to understanding this concept

Prison Slang
An Atlantic article with a list of common terms that are used by prisoners. The NY Daily News also published a list of terms gathered from the state’s female prisons

Gangs and Violence in Prisons
Information about types of gangs that exist in prisons and their implications

A Day in the Life of a Prisoner
Article by Pacific Standard that gives a first-hand description of a typical day in a state penitentiary

America is finally being exposed to the devastating reality of prison violence
How overcrowding, understaffing, and limited resources are contributing to violence in prisons



Prison Education Programs

GTL Corrections Education Management
Provider of education for adult and juvenile prisoners, probationers, and parolees

Prison Education Project
California volunteer-led initiative provides supplemental academic, career, and life skill training.

Cornell Prison Education Program
Program available to upstate New York prisons

Prison Education Initiative
A program administered by Bennington College that provides college courses to inmates at maximum security Great Meadow Correctional Facility in Comstock, NY. It was based on the Bard Prison Initiative and there is also an article about it.

Correctional Education
U.S. Department of Education website for correctional education

Prison Book Program
Program that provides books/GED study materials to prisoners

Goucher Prison Education Program
Goucher College offers courses to incarcerated men and women in Maryland. A participating professor wrote an article about his experience for The Atlantic

Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Occupational Training Directory
Directory of occupational programs – alphabetic by name of federal prison

The Bard Prison Initiative
NY state-based Bard College prison program. There is also a book about the program.

Underground Scholars
A Berkeley program started and run by former inmates, described as a ‘prison to school pipeline’. There is also a New Yorker article about the program’s inception.

Saint Louis University Prison Program
Program that allows prison employees and inmates to earn an Associate of Arts. SLU also provides College Prep and Prison Arts and Education Programs. There is an article about the first graduates who earned Associate of Arts degrees.

Prison Reform Project
Georgetown University course that integrates prisoners with traditional college students

The Petey Greene Program
Organization that matches volunteer tutors with prisoners pursuing an education. This article gives an overview of the program.

College-In-Prison Reentry Program
New York is providing funding to seven colleges for prison education programs

The Anti-Recidivism Coalition
Supports formerly incarcerated men/women through increach, mentoring, and education.

The Last Mile
San Quentin State Prison program that trains inmates in business and technical education, including coding. Wired magazine also wrote an article about the program.

Hudson Link for Higher Education in Prison
Organization that provides education, reentry support, and life skills to incarcerated and formerly incarcerated men and women in 6 New York state prisons

Prison Entrepreneurship Program (PEP)
Texas-based MBA-style program that also focuses on personal development

Prison University Project
Classroom-based education for inmates in San Quintin Prison provided by Patten University

RACHEL – Device that Allows Offline Access to Internet
There is also an article about the device and where it’s been used so far

Prison Studies Project
National directory of higher education programs in U.S. prisons

Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program
Facilitates courses that bring traditional college students together with incarcerated students for semester-long classes. The program is the source of many studies such as this one, as well as a book called Turning Teaching Inside Out.

JCI Scholars Program
Program that brings professors to Jessup Correctional Institution inmates from colleges in and around Washington DC. The Washington Post ran an article about it and the inmate’s work was also the basis of a book.

College Guild
A nonprofit that provides inmate education through nontraditional correspondence courses

Ohio University College Program for the Incarcerated
Print-based correspondence programs for associate or bachelor’s degrees or legal studies certificate

Rio Salado College Distance Learning
Correspondence courses for basic education and associate degrees, as well as workforce training for prisoners in Maricopa County, Arizona. There is a video about some of their work on Vimeo.

Boston University Prison Education Program
Participants are currently limited to two Massachusetts prisons and have the opportunity to earn a bachelor’s degree

Why I am teaching prisoners to code
Code.7370 San Quentin, the first computer programming curriculum in a US prison, participants hope to be hired as software engineers upon release.



Articles and Information About Other Programs

Thinking for a Change
Cognitive behavioral program administered by trained facilitators to adult and youth offenders. It draws on cognitive restructuring theory and focuses on social skills development and the learning and use of problem solving skills.

Second Chance Reforms in 2017
PDF that lists and describes new expungement and restoration laws across the U.S.

Arts in Corrections
California program that brings music, visual, and theater arts to state prisons. Offered in conjunction with the California Arts Council

Preparing for Prison
Website with extensive information for those entering prison or reentering society, as well as information about navigating life in prison. Beginning in 2018 their staff of lawyers and other professionals will offer consultation services to aid prisoners

Puppies Behind Bars
New York program that employs prisoners to train service dogs for wounded war veterans and to train explosive detection dogs for law enforcement


Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study
Study suggests potential for health improvements for prisoners



GED, Basic Education, and Instructor Resources

Lesson Plans and Resources for Teaching English as a Second Language
Three levels of study that would be useful for tutoring as well as ESL. Includes vocational preparation, audio, and video resources for download.

Classroom Resources by PBS
Geared toward grades 7-12, includes lesson plans that focus on history, current events, and science

How to Teach Writing in Prison
Also includes practical advice for working in the prison environment

GED Educational Resource Manual
Outlines performance standards and subjects/material needed for pre-GED, GED-ready, and postsecondary/advanced students. Includes lesson plans and test taking tips and strategies.

Curriculum Plans for Teaching GED and ESL
Includes plans for reading, math, and science, as well as multiple levels of ESL

Adult Education Tutor Support
GED lesson ideas and other lessons suitable for GED learners

Adult Education Online Resources
Classroom guides and lesson plans

Academic Writing
Instruction by the Purdue Online Writing Lab for many aspects of writing, including structuring a paragraph and choosing appropriate language

“With Switch from Pencils to Computers, GED Gets Tougher for Inmates”
NPR article explaining the barrier that computers pose to GED testing

Book: Effective Teaching in Correctional Settings
Available on Amazon, in eBook format, and in the George Mason Library

Motivational Strategies for Correctional Practitioners
Explores the challenge of creating and sustaining interest in learning

Correctional Education from the Perspective of the Prisoner Student
Also listed under “Studies of Prisoner Education Programs”

Back to School: A Guide to Continuing Your Education After Prison
Comprehensive guide to community resources, education level assessment, managing time, and other essentials for continuing education

Personal goals in prison- Lesson plan
Lesson plan for helping prisoners to start thinking about their future and their progression



Studies of Prison Education Programs

The Impact of Prison Education Programs on Post-Release Outcomes
Shows correlation between inmate education and lower costs of incarceration due to lower recidivism rates

**An Exploratory Case Study of Reducing Recidivism Through a Prison Reentry Education Program
Evaluation of a Florida prison education program

Post-Secondary Correctional Education and Recidivism in Texas
Evaluation of Texas prison education program that resulted in lower recidivism rates.

Assessing the Impact of Unit Management Programs on Institutional Misconduct and Prison “Returns”
Evaluation of various Ohio prison education programs that shows which ones were most effective.

The Effects of Prison Program Participation on Recidivism of Ex-Offenders in Mississippi
Shows that participants in Mississippi education/intervention programs had lower recidivism rates

Education, Employment and Offender Reentry
Study of Iowa prison education/employment program that resulted in lower recidivism rates

An Offender’s Perspective of Correctional Education Programs in a Southeastern State
Multi-case study that explores correctional education within the context of post-incarceration employment

**Corrections and Education: The Relationship Between Education and Recidivism
Study of African-American prisoners who benefited from prison education programs

Learning to Reduce Recidivism: A 50-State Analysis of Postsecondary Correctional Education Policy
Analysis of prison education programs shows positive effects and growing number of participants.

OCE/CEA Three State Recidivism Study
Study of effects of education on prisoners in Maryland, Minnesota, and Ohio.

ISSUE Unlocking Potential: Results of a National Survey of Postsecondary Education in State Prisons
Results of a 43-state survey of prison education programs.

“How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here?”
RAND Corporation’s results of comprehensive evaluation

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education
Meta-analysis of prison education programs by the RAND Corporation

Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study
Study suggests potential for health improvements for prisoners

Educating the Nation’s Prison Population May Spur Future Economic Growth and Reduce

Public Expenses
Data examining how states provide post-secondary correctional education for inmates. There is a lengthier PDF of the study

The Prison to College Pipeline
Universities are facing an enrollment crisis; Rutgers University is enrolling former prisoners as a way to boost enrollment and to enhance lives.



Prison Literacy Information and Resources

Correctional Education for a Satellite Based Corrections Training Network
Prison literacy report and resources

“Preparing for Life Beyond Prison Walls: The Literacy of Incarcerated Adults Near Release”
Profiles of types of literacy deficiencies of prisoners near release

“Uncovering Mass Incarceration’s Literacy Disparity”
Statistics and info regarding low literacy rates among prisoners

“US Prison System Plagued by High Illiteracy Rates”
Article about negative effects of low literacy among prisoners

Book: Doing Time, Writing Lives: Refiguring Literacy and Higher Education in Prison
Written by a prison writing instructor, link to purchase book

The Shannon Trust
A peer-to-peer literacy program implemented in UK prisons

Children of Prisoners Reading Program
Fostering connections between inmates and their children through literacy

Inside Books Project
Volunteer organization that sends free books to Texas inmates (TX has very strict policies about the books inmates can receive). They have a printable resource guide to other organizations nationwide, which any inmate can also request for free

Read Right
A reading tutoring program for Incarcerated youth and adults

Prison arts programs produce change that no audit can measure
Prison arts programs are transformative but audits are not evaluating these programs with metrics that can truly measure their success.



Second Chance Pell Grant

Second Chance Pell Fact Sheet

The 2nd Chance Pell Pilot Program: A Historical Overview

Institutions selected for participation in the Second Chance Pell

Second Chance Pell Pilot Program
2016 announcement by the Department of Education

“Uncertainty Ahead: Pell Grant Funding for Prisoners”
Essay on the role that politics play in prison reform, including funding for prison education.

“Creating Educational Opportunity for Incarcerated Students”
Brookings Institute article about Second Chance Pell Grant for inmates.

“Education as Crime Prevention: The Case for Reinstating Pell Grant Eligibility for the Incarcerated”
Report by The Bard Prison Initiative explaining the merits of the Second Chance Pell Grant

Congress Considers Making College More Accessible to People in Prison
A proposed bill would allow incarcerated people to use federal Pell Grants to pay for higher education and workforce training



Reentry Programs and Information

Federal Interagency Reentry Council
Report of past progress and future recommendations for federal reentry programs

Mentoring Resources
A collection of links and articles to guide and support mentors

Reentry: Helping Former Prisoners Return to Communities
Guide to reintegration through employment, education, health and social services

Roadmap to Reentry
Federal prison reform in the form of expanded reentry programs

National Reentry Resource Center
Resources and support for prisoner reintegration. Available services can be viewed by state.

Reentering Your Community
Handbook for inmates by the Federal Bureau of Prisons

HIRE Network
State-by-state guide to government and community organizations that provide resources, information, and assistance to job-seekers with criminal records.

“Strategies for Developing Employment Opportunities for Justice-Involved Individuals”
Tools and strategies to maximize employability for inmates

Second Chance Act of 2007
Provides funding to communities for programs that support reintegration of prisoners

Defy Ventures
An entrepreneurship, employment, and character development training program for currently and formerly incarcerated men, women, and youth

NJ based program for education and reentry of prisoners

Inmate Moms
Alabama-based organization that provides life skills and reentry support for women

Department of Education’s Reentry Education Model
Description of DOE’s Reentry Education Model, before implementation

Reentry Education Model Implementation
Report on efficacy of DOE’s Reentry Education Model for Prisons

Virginia Re-Entry Programs and Resources

Integrated Reentry and Employment Strategies: Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Job Readiness
Program aimed at reducing recidivism and increasing job readiness. More information found in the white paper.

Delaware County, Ohio Jail Substance Abuse Treatment Program
A community reinforcement approach to treatment for males with minor children and substance dependence

Community Mediation Maryland
Reentry mediation model that facilitates mediation between inmates and family members or other support individuals as they prepare for release

Challenges of Prisoner Reentry into Society
Blog post by Simmons School of Social Work that examines the challenges of reentry to individuals, families, and institutions, and proposes solutions to them

Entrepreneur Launches Tech Company to Help Incarcerated People Connect with Family
Forbes article and video about Flikshop, a tech company started by a former inmate that allows smartphone users to send pictures from their phones to inmates in the form of postcards

Roots to Reentry
Training provided by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society helps inmates build and maintain gardens while in prison, while training them for jobs in horticulture or landscape upon release. The website Next City wrote an article about the program.

Fair Shake Reentry Resource Center
Directory of national, state, and local resource guides, including some in Spanish

Reentry: Helping Former Prisoners Return to Communities
Report about challenges of reentry, including how prison affects children and families, and the agencies/organizations helping families and prisoners reconnect

Incarcerated Veterans
Information about veterans’ benefits during incarceration, as well as programs to assist veterans with healthcare and employment after release

Reentry Radio
So far, this is a three-part series about housing access and support for people with criminal justice system involvement

Finding Housing Is Hard For Former Prison Inmates. Can These Programs Help?
A few states, cities and counties are experimenting with ways to house former inmates while protecting the public



Studies Related to Reentry and Recidivism

The Effect of Prison Visitation on Reentry Success
Meta-analysis of studies that finds lower recidivism rates correspond with various types of prison visitation, including traditional, conjugal, and furlough visits

Assessing the Effects of Exposure to Supermax Confinement on Offender Post-release

A summary of the findings of a study that looks at specific actions of Ohio prisoners under post-release supervision

The Effects of Prison Visits from Family Members on Prisoners’ Well Being, Prison Rule Breaking, and Recidivism: A Review of Research Since 1991
This research review finds positive effects of visitation on multiple aspects of prisoner behavior

The Effects of Prison Visits from Community Volunteers on Offender Recidivism
Study analyzes the effect of visitors on recidivism, with more focus on clergy and mentors

Preventing Criminal Recidivism Through Mental Health and Criminal Justice Collaboration
Article that outlines the steps necessary for reducing recidivism by effectively addressing mental health issues

Economic Freedom and Recidivism: Evidence from the United States
Study that finds a correlation between the level of economic freedom and the level of prisoner recidivism within a given state

The Effects of Prison Labor on Institutional Misconduct, Post-prison Employment, and Recidivism
Analysis of Minnesota prisons over 5 years that indicates that working while in prison may have a positive impact for employment and recidivism

Prison Time Served and Recidivism
Study that looks at the effects of length of incarceration on recidivism across three states

“Family visits make prisoners less likely to reoffend. But some states make visiting hard.”
Article that draws on studies that show positive effects of visitation

The Effects of Timing and Dosage of Correctional Programming on Recidivism
Study of Minnesota prisoners that finds correlation between recidivism and the timing of participation in programs relative to the dates of incarceration and release from prison

Residential Reentry Centers Assessment
Evaluation and recommendations for “Halfway Houses” by the Federal Bureau of Prisons

Is Your Program Effective? Prisoner Reentry Program Evaluation
A quick guide for identifying inputs, outputs, and evaluations for reentry programs

How Private Prison Companies Increase Recidivism
Brief by In the Public Trust that looks at the effect that private prisons and phone/video call companies have had on recidivism rates

The Impact of Reentry Programs on Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis
Analysis of 53 reentry studies that finds certain characteristics of programs more effective than others

Outcome Evaluation of a Family-Based Jail Reentry Program for Substance Abusing Offenders
Jail-based reentry program in an Ohio county jail that included pre- and post-release treatment

Interventions to Prevent Successful Reentry Among Drug-Abusing Parolees
Article that reviews research findings to identify effective treatment methods and timing

An Analysis of Recidivism Following Reentry Mediation
Evaluation of Maryland’s mediation program, which seeks to help inmates establish positive relationships within the community prior to release

Moving On: An Outcome Evaluation of a Gender-Responsive, Cognitive-Behavioral Program for Female Offenders
Findings that focus on the effect of following program integrity in a Minnesota-based program for women

Work as a Turning Point in the Life Course of Criminals: A Duration Model of Age, Employment, and Recidivism
A comparison of research on the relationship between work and crime

Lessons in Reentry from Successful Programs and Participants
Report reviewing the Reentry Employment Opportunities study that highlights the practices that were and were not effective

Three Quarter Houses: The View from the Inside
Report that identifies problems with subsidized temporary housing in New York City, which is frequently used by prisoners following incarceration

Prisoner Reentry Institute
One of twelve research institutes under the John Jay College of Criminal Justice at the City University of New York (CUNY)

A Place to Call Home
Report about the challenges of finding an affordable, permanent residence for people who have been involved in the criminal justice system

Restoring Prisoners’ Access to Education Reduces Recidivism
A RAND meta-analysis of the literature published in 2018 found that “inmates participating in correctional education programs were 28% less likely to recidivate when compared with inmates who did not participate in correctional education programs.”



Family Resources and Programs

National Fatherhood Initiative
Info and tools for helping fathers to be engaged in the lives of their children

When a Parent is Incarcerated
A primer geared toward social workers by the Annie E. Casey Foundation

From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities
Guide to communication, social, emotional, and financial issues for inmates with families

Programs that Help Families of Prisoners
Organizations and programs that offer assistance to families of inmates, listed by state

Assisting Families of Inmates
Virginia-based organization offering many types of support for families, including facilitating visitation, information services, and many other types of support

Extended Family
Organization that assists families of inmates to navigate the prison experience. They have a curriculum-based children’s program as well as a fairly extensive resource database.

 “America Must do More to Help Family Members of the Incarcerated”
USA Today article about the toll that the prison system and imprisonment take on families

National Resource Center on Children and Families of the Incarcerated
Rutgers-based organization with many resources. Their website has a directory of programs, research and fact sheets, and resources for caregivers and health care providers.

Strengthening Families and Fatherhood: Children of Fathers in the Criminal Justice System
Department of Health and Human Services program designed to support families with infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children

The Effects of Incarceration on Children: Needs and Responsive Services
Report that identifies challenges to children of incarcerated parents and prescribes various practices to mitigate the negative effects

Pathfinders of Oregon
Set of programs designed to improve outcomes for children of justice-involved parents, and to support successful reentry for prisoners in Oregon

Child Welfare Practice with Families Affected by Parental Incarceration
Bulletin for professionals that provides an overview of the intersection of child welfare and parental incarceration, with resources to help case workers in their practice with these children and families

Incarceration and CPS Involvement
PDF article that examines the overlap between parental incarceration and child CPS involvement, and between adolescent CPS involvement and subsequent incarceration in young adulthood

Meeting the Needs of Children with an Incarcerated Parent
American Bar Association article that stresses the importance of interagency cooperation in finding the best solutions for children when a parent is incarcerated

Strong Prison Wives and Families
An online community for spouses, significant others, partners, parents, and friends of prisoners to connect for support and information

Help for Families of the Incarcerated
Collection of organizations that offer help to families of prisoners, listed by state

Families of Prisoners Support Group
Online group discussion board

Book ’em! Literacy program links inmates to loved ones
Program allows incarcerated parents the opportunity to read to their children from behind bars.



Female Inmate Resources and Information

Prison Nurseries: Experiences of Incarcerated Women During Pregnancy
Comparison of mothers who had access to prison nurseries and those who did not reveals benefits such as lower recidivism rates

“What a Day in the Life of a Woman in Prison Actually Looks Like”
An article that details the chronological schedule of a typical female inmate’s day in a North Carolina prison

Prisons for Women
A collection of articles that outlines women in prison, from the history of women’s prisons to the unique challenges that they face today

Reentry Programs for Women Inmates
Overview of the approaches and evaluation of the outcomes for a few well-established women’s treatment programs

Innovative Prison Programs Boost Opportunities for Female Inmates
Huffington Post article about the implementation of prison programs for women, including GED, sexual abuse, and creative writing

Prison Hosts New Program for Female Inmates
A Pennsylvania women’s prison offers college courses through the Inside-Out college program, as well as creative writing and sexual assault education

Women Injustice: Gender and the Pathway to Jail in New York City
Report that seeks to address the disproportionate growth of female incarceration, as well as the unique challenges faced by women in prison

Mothers Behind Bars
A state-by-state report card and analysis of federal policies on conditions of con­finement for pregnant and parenting women

American Prisons are hell. For Women, They’re Even Worse
American prisons are often ill equipped to handle women’s issues.

The Contraceptive Needs of Incarcerated Women
Study reveals the need for education and access to contraceptives in prison



Juvenile Detention Resources and Information

“Locked Out: Improving Educational and Vocational Outcomes for Incarcerated Youth”
Paper discussing vocational/educational programs in juvenile detention centers

Federal Aid for Students Inmates
Eligibility and instructions for juveniles to apply for federal education funds

Fact Sheet: Juvenile Justice Education
Information on the prevalence of education participation in different types of juvenile facilities

“What if This Were Your Kid?!”
Article by The Atlantic that addresses the effect of solitary confinement on juvenile education

Book: Educating Juveniles with Disabilities in Correctional Facilities

Addressing the Unmet Educational Needs of Children and Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems
Barriers to education, evidence-based interventions and practices, implementation of recommendations

Improving Educational Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System
Deficiencies in the system and suggested reforms for facilities and reentry practices

Special Education in Correctional Facilities
Synthesis of information on youth with disabilities and suggested remedies for institutions and practitioners

Interventions to Reduce Recidivism Rates Among Juvenile Offenders
Literature review of interventions that reduce recidivism rates of juveniles

Multicultural Training for Mental Health Professionals Working in the Juvenile Justice System
Intended to train professionals in cross-cultural communication in the juvenile justice system

Improving Transition Outcomes for Youth Involved in the Juvenile Justice System: Practical Considerations
Brief containing information on the characteristics of incarcerated youth and the issues they face, along with promising practices currently being implemented in the United States

Transition and Reentry: Improving Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Corrections
Resources that addresses the high percentage of the juvenile corrections population with disabilities, including a list of resources for reentry planning

The Good Behavior Game
A proven strategy for groups/classrooms that rewards desired behavior

Reading for Life
12-week diversion program aimed at keeping first-time offenders from returning to the justice system

Juvenile Justice Reform
Descriptions of strategies such as early intervention and diversion into rehabilitative programs that are centered around evidence-based practices

Juvenile Reentry
Key issues facing juveniles leaving detention centers, including resources and reform trends

Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System
White paper that focuses on promoting practices that have proved favorable for reducing recidivism for youth offenders

“Case Now Strong for Ending Probation’s Place as Default Disposition in Juvenile Justice”
Article that outlines strategies that have proven more effective in reducing recidivism in youth than the practice of surveillance-based probation

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
A division of the Department of Justice that supports states and communities in the implementation of juvenile justice systems

Educational Aftercare & Reintegration Toolkit for Juvenile Justice Professionals
Information and resources to assist in the education of youth during and after detainment (though it is directed toward professionals in Pennsylvania, there is information that is generally relevant to all)

Cultural Competency Self-Assessment for Staff Providing Behavioral Health Services to Children, Youth, and their Families
Addresses communication, linguistics, physical environment/materials, program practices, values, and world view

Close to Home Initiative
New York’s juvenile justice reform aimed at housing justice-involved youth in residential facilities close to their homes and families. The Annie E. Casey Foundation also wrote an article about the program

Project Build
Chicago-based initiative that includes three programs that focus on violence prevention/intervention, youth development, and coalition building. Evaluations have shown that it has been effective

No Youth Jail Coalition
The organization is fighting against another youth detention center being built in Seattle, advocating for prevention programs instead. Here is an in-depth article on the organizations mission: No Youth Jail Coalition

Educating Juveniles in Adult Jails
In some states juveniles over the age of 16 are tried as adults, resulting in them residing in adult prisons, this is a guide for providing them with education



Articles and Essays About Prison Education and Other Programs

“College Classes in Maximum Security: ‘It Gives You Meaning’”
NPR article about positive effects of college on inmates

“Inmate Education: How to Find the Right Opportunity”
Description of vocation and education programs in prisons

“Distance Learning Breaches Prison Walls”
Article about technology barriers in prison education in the UK

“Teaching Neuroscience in Prison”
Article from The Atlantic about prisoners participating in Cornell’s Prison Education Program

“Online Education behind Bars”
Benefits and challenges of postsecondary education for prisoners

“Education Solutions Can Break the Cycle of Recidivism”
Benefits and overview of prison education programs provided by GTL

“The Lifelong Learning of Lifelong Inmates”
Article: Why prison education is about more than lower recidivism

“Former Inmate Helps Other Women Rebuild Their Lives”
NPR article about a woman who started a program to assist other women with the reentry process. Her book is called Becoming Ms. Burton

Silver State Industries Ranch
NY Times article about a Nevada prison program that enlists inmates to train horses

“My Prison Cell: Learning to Hear on a Cardboard Piano”
New Yorker article about an inmate who teaches himself to play the piano in his cell

Book: Liberating Minds – The Case for College in Prison
Book that claims college education is best prison reform, with success cases to support it

“In Prison, Chess is King in Helping to Educate Inmates”
Wall Street Journal article about Rikers Island program that uses chess to educate inmates and reduce idleness

“Let Prisoners Take College Courses”
Article by an Attica prisoner advocating for massive open online courses (MOOC) to be made available in prisons

“Building a School District in the Federal Bureau of Prisons”
Memo by Attorney General Sally Yates outlining the need for more structured education in federal prisons

“Prison Education Program Allows Inmates to Keep Learning”
Article about California prison education program

“The Tricky Politics of Educating Prisoners”
Article from The Atlantic about the possible effects of the Second Chance Pell Grant on future efforts toward prison reform

“The Next Tech Boom is Taking Place Behind Bars”
Huffington Post article about tech-based prison education initiatives

“Prison Education Reduces Recidivism by Over 40 Percent. Why Aren’t We Funding More of it?”
Article by The Nation that advocates for financial aid for inmate education, as well as increased access to programs

“At County Jail, Social Workers Hope to Stop the Revolving Door”
Article about a program that brings social services to prisoners at high risk for recidivism

“Life After Prison”
Recidivism dropped in Kentucky state prisons after implementation of mental health services and other training for inmates

“Mental Illness Soars in Prisons, Jails While Inmates Suffer”
Huffington Post article about how mental illness makes incarceration more likely for some, and presents a serious problem to both the incarcerated and prison administration

“Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Work in Criminal Justice?”
Article about the analysis of CBT that found this form of therapy effective for deterring crime, assisting victims, and preventing recidivism. The analysis can be found at

“Evictions Aren’t the Answer, Say Advocates”
Article about the recent crackdown on evictions of justice-related tenants in New York City’s public housing. The Daily News published an editorial that was also critical of this practice

Gardening program for inmates at North Idaho prison aids community gardens, builds job skills
A look at how gardening can teach inmates skills that benefit them outside of prison.